In September of 2013, the Cyptolocker virus is thought to have been posted online. Part of a new class of malicious software called ransomware, it would encrypt infected files and then demand a ransom from users for the decryption key. Spread through email attachments and also distributed by the Zeus botnet, it’s responsible for extorting an estimated $3 million from infected victims. After encrypting files using public RSA keys, it would display a message demanding payment via bitcoin or cash vouchers. In 2014, a joint police sting called Operation Tovar took down the Zeus botnet and recovered the database of private keys used by Cryptolocker. An online tool was later created to allow users to get their keys and decrypt files. Several other versions of this ransomeware came later using variations of the original “cryptolocker” name.
Vine was founded in 2012 and in just a few short months was acquired by Twitter after becoming immensely popular with teens and young adults. Created by Dom Hofmann, Rus Yusupov, and Colin Kroll, it allowed users to create short videos up to six seconds long. In January 2013 it was launched on iOS, followed a few months later by the Android and Windows Phone version. It quickly became the most used video sharing app and was soon the number one most downloaded free app in the Apple App Store. Vine Kids was launched in 2015, in direct response to criticism on how pornography was handled, which lead to the app being rated for 17+ users by Apple.