In 1977, a TCP message makes a trip through a packet-radio host, a satellite network host, and an ARPANet host without losing a single unit of information. The transmission demonstrates the feasibility of TCP-based networking. Enabling distinct networks to communicate with each other, the details were published in a paper by Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf in 1974.
The historic message originated in San Francisco sent from a van traveling down the freeway to an ARPANet site at BBN via radio link. It then traveled over the Atlantic via satellite to Norway. It continues through ground and radio networks to University College, London and then back across the ocean via satellite to ARPANet, and finally to the University of Southern California. Between each site the message is routed by a gateway computer. The message travels 94,000 miles and arrives completely intact. In 1978 Xerox introduced IP. Intended to enhance TCP, it handles the routing of individual messages leaving TCP responsible only for constructing and unloading of datagrams. Together as TCP/IP it becomes the standard in computer networks, helping the internet to expand.